Chronos - Welcome to my world. "MAKING TOMORROW'S HISTORY TODAY" Applications of Nine-dimensional Theory The Universe could comprise myriad dimensions, many of which may never be discovered by man. However, by the early Twenty-second Century, mankind has not only discovered nine perpendicular dimensions of the Universe, but has learned to traverse them and harness their unique properties for a variety of effects, including interspatial teleportation, temporal phasing, and time travel into parallel timelines. These nine known dimensions can be broken down into three categories: Space, Time, and Interspace, each comprising three dimensions. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Space - Time Most people are familiar with the three dimensions of space: x, y, and z. These represent the perpendicular dimensions of length, width, and depth. The fourth dimension, time, t, is perpendicular to the other three. The dimension of time is unique in that one can travel in only one direction through it: from past to future. The dimension of time is not a straight line, but cyclical, overlapping itself in regular loops (picture a Slinky). The bottom of this spiral would represent the past, and the top would extend into the future. From above, this spiral would appear as a circle, so dimension t could be considered the temporal circumference. Each time a new temporal cycle begins, the previous one becomes a temporal echo, or parallel timeline. There is no limit to the number of unique timelines that may exist at a given time period. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Temporal Phasing The fifth dimension, r, represents the temporal radius. Picture the above-mentioned circle with circumference t. The radius, or the perpendicular line from the center intersecting with t, determines the length of the circumference. Imagine a circle with radius r and circumference t=1; this would be the standard time flow. If one travels outward through dimension r (increasing the radius) so that the circumference t=2, then one has doubled the amount of time passing in one temporal cycle, thus speeding up time to twice its normal rate. This phenomenon is known as temporal acceleration. A temporal accelerator device using this principle can be used to speed up time within an area; this can be useful in speeding up long-term experiments, such as animal breeding and genetic engineering, within an accelerated environment. Moving inward through dimension r (decreasing the radius) would decrease the temporal circumference, t, causing a shorter amount of time to pass in a temporal cycle. This phenomenon is known as temporal stasis, or the slowing down of time. Devices using this phenomenon can be used to slow down time within a specific spherical volume, allowing objects within that area to age more slowly; this application could be used for the storage of perishable food, organic tissues, or to keep people in temporal stasis during extended space flights. Another way to understand fifth-dimensional temporal phasing is to think of time as a phonograph record, the radius of which is the fifth dimension, and the grooves of which represent the flow of time. The outside of a record traverses more distance in one revolution (temporal cycle) than the center of the record does, just as moving outward in the fifth dimension causes one to experience more time per cycle, while moving inward causes less time to pass in a temporal cycle. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Time Travel The sixth dimension, s, can be thought of as the distance between the temporal cycles (or the height of the above-mentioned Slinky). This dimension is used for what is known as "time travel," or moving between analogous points in parallel timelines. The sixth dimension has several limitations. Like time, t, dimension s is unidirectional in nature -- gateways through the sixth dimension can be opened only into the past. Also, since dimension s is perpendicular to dimension t, gateways can be opened only to the same point in different cycles -- i.e., one can travel only by multiples of whole cycles into the past. If a cycle, t, is 500 days long, then one can travel through time only by multiples of 500 days. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Teleportation The last three dimensions -- u, v, and w -- are the three dimensions of "interspace." If one views the dimensions of space -- x, y, and z -- as spirals like t, then the interspace dimensions would be the distances between their respective spatial cycles, like dimension s. The travel through the interspace dimensions between two points in normal space is known as interspatial teleportation. Spatial cycles can be greatly influenced by gravitational fields. At Earth's mean surface gravity, spatial cycles are compressed to within a few meters of one another. In deep space, away from any gravitational fields, spatial cycles can be spaced to millions of kilometers apart. This phenomenon allows people to teleport to within a few meters of any destination on Earth's surface, or to teleport many light years in deep space, without much difference in energy expenditure. (e.g., Teleporting through 100 spatial cycles on Earth would take a person to a point a few kilometers away, while 100 spatial cycles through deep space would traverse close to a light year, both using the same amount of energy.) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copyright 2120 Chronos Technologies, Inc. CHRONOS HOME 9-D THEORY USING TIME GATES DESTINY, CAUSALITY NAVIGATING TIMELINES TEMPORAL PHASING TELEPORTATION E-MAIL US / F.A.Q. ABOUT US GIFT SHOP MOVIES / DVDs MESSAGE BOARD DELPHI FORUM "MAKING TOMORROW'S HISTORY TODAY" Time Gates Creating Time Gates A time gate, or a dimensional portal through the sixth dimension, allows travel between two analogous temporal cycles in different timelines. In order to create a stable time gate, the following procedures must be followed: First, the time gate must be located in a geologically stable region surrounded by dense solid matter -- e.g., deep inside a cave with solid stone walls. The solid matter surrounding the time gate apparatus must be old enough to have existed in the same position on both sides of the time gate. This is because the dimension of time is independent of the dimensions of space. For example, say New Jersey is located somewhere between Venus and Mars on a certain date. If a time traveller stepped through a time gate located in New Jersey that led ten years into the past, would he emerge in New Jersey ten years earlier, or would he appear at a point in space somewhere between Venus and Mars, or would he appear in that part of the Universe where the constantly moving Solar system was located ten years ago? All points in space are relative to one another and are constantly changing over time, so a time gate cannot be built in just any empty space; it must be linked to specific protons and atoms, which have their own mass, gravity, and space that they occupy. The properties of a proton do not change over time, so space at the subatomic level is constant and stable over long periods of time. (This is the protonic continuity principle, first postulated by Dr. Walter Reffick in the late Twenty-first Century.) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Once a suitably stable environment has been located, the time gate may be constructed as follows: A tachyon accelerator is positioned so that it can emit a steady tachyon stream onto a super-dense gravitic lens, which will focus the tachyon field into a single plane within stable protonic matter. (Tachyons are three-dimensional particles that occupy the second, fourth, and sixth dimensions, out of phase with normal space-time; while first proposed theoretically in the mid-Twentieth Century, they were not actually discovered until a century later due to their unique dimensional phase properties.) The gravitic lens is composed of a super-dense artificial material that is bombarded by a graviton stream from a graviton accelerator, which is placed at a ninety-degree angle from the tachyon accelerator, so that the tachyon and graviton streams intersect at the center of the gravitic lens. (Gravitons are three-dimensional particles that occupy the fifth, seventh, and ninth dimensions, sharing many properties with photons, but in a different dimensional phase; so, unlike photons, gravitons can pass through solid matter.) The gravitic lens must remain supercooled close to absolute zero, so that atomic motion is at a minimum, which is necessary to maintain a stable tachyon stream. The gravitic lens is used to refract the tachyon stream along the sixth-dimensional axis; the degree of refraction determines through how many temporal cycles the time gate will extend into the past. Thus, going farther back in time requires a greater degree of refraction of the tachyon stream, which means a greater graviton density in the gravitic lens. The intensity, or frequency, of the tachyon stream determines the diameter of the time gate. A time gate aperture that is several meters across would require millions of times more tachyon energy to keep open than would a time gate open at only the atomic level. Once created, the time gate will appear as a distortion around the matter onto which it is projected, in roughly a two-dimensional circular plane. The gravitational and dimensional stresses may create an optical refractory effect, creating a swirling rainbow pattern around the perimeter of the gateway. The center of the aperture will appear to recede inward, an optical illusion created by the sixth-dimensional refraction of the tachyon stream. After the time gate is created, and the diameter and degree of sixth-dimensional displacement are selected, the time traveller may enter the aperture through the side opposite the tachyon accelerator (i.e., the tachyon accelerator and gravitic lens would be located behind the time gate). In the past timeline, the time traveller would emerge on the opposite side of the plane of the time gate, where the gravitic lens is located in his future. Time travel, however, is not as simple as stepping through a doorway. The gateway aperture must be projected onto a plane of solid protonic matter, and it would be extremely unlikely to find a natural arrangement of stable protonic matter in a two-dimensional plane thin enough to step through. It is thus necessary for the time travellers to use cutting machinery to bore through the solid matter inside of which the time gateway has already been opened. Since the trans-dimensional time gate effect encompasses a thickness of about ten atomic diameters in both timelines, a hole can be cut through the matter on one side of the time gate in the future timeline, and straight through the matter on the other side of the time gate in the past timeline, but the plane of continuous protonic matter onto which the time gate is projected will have contiguous matter supporting it in both timelines, albeit from opposite sides of the sixth-dimensional gateway (see illustration below). Suffice to say, building a stable sixth-dimensional time gate requires years of geological surveying and excavation. Constructing a Time Gate: A cross section of a geologically stable natural cavern as it originally looks in all timelines. A solid wall with open spaces on both sides is ideal for constructing a time gate. In the future timeline, a tachyon accelerator (left) and gravitic lens are constructed behind the wall. The gravitic lens focuses the tachyon stream onto a plane deep inside the solid cavern wall to open a time gate. The time travellers excavate the other side of the wall until the sixth-dimensional gateway is exposed. In the past timeline, the time travellers continue digging through the gateway until they break through the other side of the wall. The time gate is still within a plane of solid matter in both timelines. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Using Time Gates Once the tachyon/graviton apparatus is constructed and a working time gate is created, the operator may use it to traverse the sixth dimension into a past temporal cycle. (The time gate cannot be opened into the future, for reasons discussed in Navigating Parallel Timelines; however, once a time gate has been opened into the past, traffic may flow in either direction through the gate as long as it is open.) There are certain limitations that should be observed while using a sixth-dimensional time gate. There is a point in the past at which the matter onto which the time gateway is projected will not have existed in its present state. For example, even the stone walls of the deepest cavern on Earth had to be created at some point in Earth's geologic history, so the practical limitations of any time gate on Earth would be less than a billion years into the past. To go farther back in time, a time gate would have to be constructed within a much more ancient and more geologically stable area, such as the Moon, Mars, or one of the moons of the outer planets of the Solar system. Also, time travel should be restricted to points in time before the time gate was constructed. Since the time gate will most likely be in the same location for a period of many years, the possibility exists that time travellers from a future timeline could open a temporal gateway into the location of the time gate apparatus in the past, which could lead to an awkward or embarrassing situation if they confronted themselves in a past timeline. It is always preferable to emerge in the past in a private and secluded location with no witnesses to the time travellers' arrival, so that any temporal divergence can be kept to a minimum, and the time travellers will have the most control over their situation. A time gate alone will most likely not be sufficient for the effective exploration of the past. A temporal gateway deep inside a cavern would deposit the time traveller into a dark empty cavern in the past, hardly an ideal environment in which to conduct historical and temporal studies. Therefore, a useful tool in addition to the time gate apparatus would be an interspatial teleporter, portable and compact enough to be moved through the time gate into the past timeline. The interspatial teleporter should be located on an extending platform in front of the time gate, so that it can be extended through the open temporal aperture into the past timeline. Once on the other side of the time gate, the time traveller could use the teleporter to travel to any desired location in that past timeline. In addition to the teleporter, the time traveller may wish to take a more conventional mode of transportation, such as an automobile or a small aircraft, in which to move around in the past. Of course, the more equipment the time traveller takes into the past, the larger the teleporter and the time gate aperture will have to be, which will require more energy to keep open. For long-term journeys into the past, the time gate aperture can be reduced in diameter after the time travellers are deposited on the other side; when they wish to return through the gate, they would transmit a signal via a tachyon pulse emitter, which could be detected by the time gate operators on the other side of the temporal aperture, and they would open the gateway to allow the time travellers to pass through it. This would save much energy that would be wasted keeping the temporal aperture open to its full diameter. A final warning: Once a time gate is closed, the link between the two timelines will be lost forever. Every opening of a time gate, even into the same time period, creates a link to an entirely new and distinct timeline. If a time traveller is on the past side of a time gate when it is closed, the time traveller will be trapped in that past timeline forever. Copyright 2120 Chronos Technologies, Inc. CHRONOS HOME 9-D THEORY USING TIME GATES DESTINY, CAUSALITY NAVIGATING TIMELINES TEMPORAL PHASING TELEPORTATION E-MAIL US / F.A.Q. ABOUT US GIFT SHOP MOVIES / DVDs MESSAGE BOARD DELPHI FORUM "MAKING TOMORROW'S HISTORY TODAY" Destiny, Causality, and Temporal Divergence Causality Before one can understand the effects that time travel has on causality, it is necessary to understand the forces that govern causality in the present. While some people may find comfort in the delusion that they have free will to determine the outcome of spontaneous events, in fact the outcome of every event was determined with the creation of the Universe. The same natural laws govern all matter in the Universe -- whether that matter makes up stars and planets, or whether it composes the cells in a person's brain. Gravity, electromagnetism, and quantum forces determine the interaction and outcome of all events in the Universe. While some events, such as flipping a coin or rolling a die, may seem to be random, their outcomes are determined by the forces of nature. This can be illustrated by tracing the contributing causal forces of an event backwards in time: When a coin is flipped, it lands tails-up. This is due not to random chance, but to forces acting on the coin, including air density and wind, local gravitational forces, the force and trajectory at which the coin was thrown, and the weight of the coin itself. While these and other factors may seem to be random and spontaneous, each force acting on the coin was in turn caused by another force. For example, the force at which the coin was thrown was determined by the neuro-muscular development of the person throwing it, which in turn was determined by the person's experience, diet, environment, and genetic makeup. The person's genetic makeup was determined by which genes were passed on from the parents, which were determined by when the parents conceived the child, which was determined by when the parents first met, which was determined by the geographic locations of the parents, which could be traced back through economic, political, geological, and evolutionary causal forces, which in turn can be traced back to the creation of Earth and the Solar system, which in turn was determined by the forces existing at the creation of the Universe. This is just one small chain of causal events that determines the outcome of a coin toss. While it seems there is a near-infinite number of forces acting on the coin, and while the outcome of the coin toss may actually be unpredictable to any kind of human perception, in fact the outcome of the coin toss was destined to happen in only one way since the birth of the Universe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Destiny No event -- from the collision of planets to a subatomic event at the quantum level -- is spontaneous. Nothing is random. Every event in the Universe was caused by something, and every causal event has an effect on something. This basic principle is known as Destiny. Destiny should not be confused with Fate. Fate is the religious belief that the gods are directly intervening in causal forces, determining the outcome of events supernaturally. Belief in Fate, or divine intervention, requires faith in certain religious philosophies. Destiny, however, is a fact -- a force of nature, like gravity or magnetism, that requires no faith, just an understanding of causal forces. Once a person comprehends the basic principles of causality and Destiny, it is possible to understand the concept of temporal divergence caused by time travel. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Temporal Divergence Temporal divergence results when the natural chain of causal events is broken by a spontaneous event arising from another causal continuum -- e.g., a time gate being opened from a future timeline. The opening of a time gate and the arrival of a time traveller from a future timeline have no prior causal links in the past timeline, but the time traveller's actions -- even his mere existence -- in the past timeline can have significant causal effects on subsequent events. There are varying degrees of temporal divergence: quantum, molecular, genetic, historical, evolutionary, geological, and universal. Each level of divergence is increasingly severe, and each level causes the next, though it may take hours, years, or billions of years to have any significant effect at the next-higher level. The opening of a time gate at the atomic level for only a brief amount of time can cause temporal divergence at the quantum level. This might cause a single electron or photon to be created, destroyed, or moved in a different way than it was destined to be. This change may have absolutely no noticeable effects on the flow of time for a very long period of time, but the fact that the total energy state of the Universe was altered even slightly will eventually and inevitably lead to molecular divergence. Molecular divergence occurs when a time traveller moves just a few atoms or molecules. This may alter local gravitational forces, temperature, fluid dynamics, and other molecular traits. As described in Twentieth-Century chaos theory, moving a single molecule can lead very quickly to significant seismic and climatic changes around the world. For example, moving a single air molecule in South Africa could alter the wind patterns in the immediate area, which in turn could alter the weather throughout the Southern Hemisphere, which in turn would cause a storm in a specific location, which could lead to temporal divergence at the genetic level. Genetic divergence occurs when a single individual ceases to exist -- or is created -- as a result of time travel. Every person's unique genetic code is determined by a specific sperm cell fertilizing a specific egg. A man produces a different sperm cell, containing different DNA, every few seconds, and a woman produces a different egg every month, so if a time traveller causes even a one-second delay in a chain of causal events, a different sperm cell will fertilize an egg, creating an entirely unique individual who never existed in the time traveller's home continuum (and causing the person who existed in that continuum never to have been born in the divergent timeline). This brings to mind the "Grandfather Paradox," a Twentieth-Century theory postulating that if a time traveller went back in time and killed his own grandfather before he met his grandmother, then the time traveller would never have existed. Of course, time travellers cannot change their own past -- they can only enter divergent timelines and cause changes there, so this grandfather scenario is not really a paradox. In addition, the time traveller does not need to kill the grandfather, just delay him a few seconds before his first meeting with the grandmother, so that when they do eventually conceive a child, it will have a different genetic structure, and therefore one of the time traveller's parents will never be born. Inevitably, within a generation of an instance of genetic divergence, history will begin to diverge. If just a few people in a society are changed in a timeline, different events will occur, and history will begin to unfold on a different path from the history of the original timeline. Imagine if Adolf Hitler's parents had conceived a daughter instead of a son, or if Julius Caesar had never been born; the change of a single person could have rapid and significant effects on history. And since one historical event leads to and causes the next, a single change in the past will expand geometrically until the future bears no resemblance whatsoever to the future society of the original timeline. This would be called total genetic and historical divergence, where no person or event in one timeline has an analog in another timeline. Temporal divergence far enough in the past can lead to changes at the evolutionary scale. For example, travelling a million years back in time could change the course of hominid evolution so that Neandertal Man would become the dominant species on Earth instead of Homo sapiens. Travelling back one hundred million years into the past could cause evolutionary and geologic changes that would prevent the mass extinctions of the dinosaurs, allowing them to replace mammals as the dominant life forms on the planet. Geological divergence occurs when a time traveller causes changes that will eventually change the appearence of the planet itself. Moving a single rock in the distant past could cause changes in wind and water flow in the area, leading to different erosion patterns -- after a long period of time, these simple changes could alter the course of rivers and the shape of continents. After billions of years, plate tectonics would be altered, causing entire continents and oceans to be different. After billions of years, geological changes to a planet could alter its gravitational field and orbit, which could have minor effects on other planetary bodies. After billions or trillions of years, entire galaxies could be altered slightly by temporal divergence -- and this all could have been caused by a time traveller moving a few molecules in the distant past. Of course, there are physical limitations that prevent time gates from being opened too far into the geologic past, and it is unlikely that time travellers could directly cause temporal divergence at the universal scale, unless they use an interspatial starship to travel to other star systems in the past timeline. In general, the degree of temporal divergence in a past timeline is determined by the size of the time gate that is opened, how long the time gate is open, and what the time traveller does while in the past. However, regardless of these factors, the mere act of opening a time gate into the past will cause some degree of divergence, and after enough time has passed after the point of divergence, history will eventually reach a point of total divergence -- i.e., become totally unrecognizable. A wise time traveller will try to minimize the amount of temporal divergence he causes in the past, so that the past timeline will be as close to his own history as possible. This will allow him to anticipate events before they occur, giving him an advantage over other people in the past. However, shortly after the time traveller arrives in the past, so-called "random" events in his immediate vicinity will have different outcomes. Dice rolled at a casino craps table will land on different numbers; a lightning bolt will strike a different location; and a freak accident might be averted or caused by the time traveller's presence. The time traveller has no control over these events, but society in general should remain the same for months or years if the time traveller is careful. The same officials will be elected, the same countries will go to war, and earthquakes will strike the same cities. Eventually, though, even these events will become unpredictable. A time traveller on a long-term incursion into a past timeline should be highly trained in the principles of chaos theory, causality, and temporal divergence in order to prepare for and adapt to unpredictable instances of temporal divergence. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copyright 2120 Chronos Technologies, Inc. CHRONOS HOME 9-D THEORY USING TIME GATES DESTINY, CAUSALITY NAVIGATING TIMELINES TEMPORAL PHASING TELEPORTATION E-MAIL US / F.A.Q. ABOUT US GIFT SHOP MOVIES / DVDs MESSAGE BOARD DELPHI FORUM "MAKING TOMORROW'S HISTORY TODAY" Navigating Parallel Timelines Parallel Timelines The opening of a sixth-dimensional time gate invariably leads to the creation of a divergent timeline. The term "time travel" is somewhat misleading, since one is travelling between two different Universes, not two different time periods within the same Universe. One way to think about parallel timelines is to think of them as echoes of one's own timeline. At regular intervals, an exact duplicate of the past exists at each multiple of the temporal cycle. (See Applications of Nine-dimensional Theory for more information about temporal cycles.) Travel through a sixth-dimensional time gate brings a time traveller into one of these "temporal echoes," or parallel timelines, not into the actual past. Each of these parallel timelines is identical in every way to the original timeline, up to the point at which the time gate from the original timeline is opened into it. While travelling to a parallel timeline does not allow time travellers to change their own past, sixth-dimensional travel opens up many other opportunities. The ability to go into a past timeline and influence events is almost as satisfying as changing one's own past, with the added benefit of avoiding the phenomenon known as the temporal paradox that is depicted in many fictional accounts of "time travel." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Paradoxes Almost since the notion of time travel was first suggested, scientists and philosophers have grappled with the problem of the temporal paradox. As discussed in Destiny, Causality, and Temporal Divergence, the "Grandfather Paradox" is the classic example of this dilemma. If a time traveller could travel to his own past, and once there, proceeded to kill his own grandfather before the grandfather could have children, then the time traveller would never be born. So, within this single timeline, two mutually exclusive conditions arise: The time traveller was both born and not born. The mere act -- even the mere possibility -- of opening a time gate into one's own past allows for such a paradox to occur. Philosophers have suggested numerous remedies for this problem over the centuries. One popular suggestion has been the "Block Universe" proposal, stating that there is only one timeline, and that travellers going into the past only fulfil their "destined" role in history -- i.e., the time traveller had always been destined to go back in time and become part of history. There are flaws in this theory, however. First, it assumes that the time travellers are ignorant of the past, blindly and unwittingly stumbling into fulfilling their destinies; otherwise, if the time travellers do know about the past, they are impotent to change history, being blocked by some kind of "anti-paradox" force of nature that conveniently prevents any tampering with history. This concept may be a convenient way around paradoxes in time travel fantasy stories, but in reality, it has no basis in scientific fact. If people could travel into their own past to a specific time and place where there was clear documentation that there were no time travellers present, then their arrival there would be a paradox within a single timeline. And given the possibility of time travel, there is no force of nature to prevent the opening of such a link into the past in a controlled environment. Likewise, there is no physical law that prevents a person from killing his grandfather in the present, and since the same physical laws existed in the past, there is no reason a time traveller could not kill the grandfather in the past. Similarly, while the "Block Universe" model may allow for travel into the future, the mere act or possibility of travelling into one's own future gives rise to another paradoxical situation. The future is defined by all events and conditions leading up to it, just as the present and past are. If a person opens a link to the future, meets his older self, then commits suicide on the spot, the existence of the older future self is a paradox. He cannot exist if he committed suicide when he was younger. For this reason, travel into the future is not possible in a "Block Universe" model. Even the divergent timeline model cannot allow travel into the future, since in the above scenario, while the future self's past would not include committing suicide, there would be no other timeline in which he would have committed suicide, since all timelines have identical pasts up to the point of divergence; and temporal divergence does not occur unless a time gate is opened into the past. Another way to think of the above paradox is to ask, "Whose future did the suicidal time traveller go to, since he would not have an older self in his own future?" Obviously, no chain of events would lead up to both the time traveller's suicide and his continuing to live into the future, unless two timelines had diverged in the past; but travelling to a point in the future would not cause the spontaneous divergence of timelines in the past -- only travelling into a past timeline can cause temporal divergence. So, while a time traveller could go into a past timeline and cause his younger self to commit suicide, he could not open a gateway into a parallel future, since temporal divergence arises only forward in past timelines, not retroactively from the future. (Multiple pasts cannot converge to a single future, but a single past can branch off into divergent futures.) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Travel Between Timelines Once a time traveller has a working sixth-dimensional time gate that allows passage into parallel timelines, it is possible to access almost any point in history and create a new timeline from that point. While navigating between parallel timelines, it is important to remember several properties of sixth-dimensional travel. First, as discussed in Applications of Nine-dimensional Theory, time gates can be opened only through multiples of whole temporal cycles (which are about 500 days). This means that a time traveller has to plan any trip to a specific time period months or years in advance -- and if the window of opportunity is missed, the time traveller must wait another entire temporal cycle for another opportunity to go to that time period. Second, every opening of a time gate creates a new and unique divergent timeline. That is, even if five time gates are opened simultaneously to the same point in history, and each of five time travellers steps through a different gate, each time traveller will be alone in a different timeline; no two time gates can be opened between the same two timelines. This is important to note, since any long-term studies of a single parallel timeline would require that the same time gate be kept open continuously. Third, as mentioned above, since time gates cannot be opened into the future, a time traveller can get back to his home timeline only via the same time gateway through which he journeyed into the past. Once the time gate is closed, the link between the two timelines is severed forever. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Multiple Linked Timelines Within any given timeline, there is no limit to the number of time gates that may link the timeline to others. The existence of multiple time gates being open simultaneously in a single timeline can lead to numerous permutations of interconnected timelines. Following are just a few examples of multiple parallel timeline combinations which may arise. In all examples, the root (original) timeline shall be referred to as "Timeline A." A time gate from the year 2258 in Timeline A is opened into August 1932 in Timeline B; the time gate is kept open for the entire month. Many years later, in the year 2237 in Timeline B, time travellers open a time gate into August 1932 of their past, creating a Timeline C. In August 1932 of Timeline C, there now exist two time gates, one leading to the year 2237 (Timeline B) and another leading to 2258 (Timeline A-2). The original Timeline A cannot be reached from Timeline C, since the gate linking Timelines A and B exists only between those two timelines. Just as Timeline C is a duplicate of Timeline B's past, any open links in Timeline B's past are also duplicated, so the link between Timelines A and B is duplicated in the parallel timeline as a link between Timelines A-2 and C. This phenomenon is one way of travelling indirectly to a parallel future. While time travellers in 2237 of Timeline B cannot open a time gate directly into the future, they can go to August 1932 in Timeline C, where the time gate from Timeline A-2 is open. The time travellers from Timeline B can then pass through that open time gate to the year 2258 of Timeline A-2, which is twenty-six years farther into the future than their point of origin, albeit in a different timeline twice removed from their own, and three times removed from the original future (Timeline A). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A time gate is opened from 2247 in Timeline A to August of 2112 in Timeline B, and time travellers from Timeline A go back and assassinate a public official. Many years later, in 2242 in Timeline B, a time gate is opened to late July of 2112 (in Timeline C), where time travellers from Timeline B plan to observe the public official's assassination first-hand a few weeks later. However, when the date of the assassination arrives, the official is not killed, even though the time travellers were very careful not to cause any changes to the timeline. The official in Timeline C was not assassinated because the assassins in Timeline B had come from Timeline A, and since the time travellers from Timeline B arrived in Timeline C at an earlier point in time, the time gate from Timeline A was never duplicated, as it was in the previous example. Timeline C, therefore, is closer to the original Timeline A, since there was no assassination that changed the course of history. When the time travellers from Timeline B analyze these puzzling changes in history, they will realize that their own past has been tampered with (this would be the only way of knowing that one's timeline is a parallel timeline that diverged from another). With further study and other trips to proximal dates in the past, they could narrow down the time when the assassins from Timeline A arrived in their past, and could then open a time gate to a parallel timeline at that point in history to catch the assassins, and possibly locate their time gate. From this parallel past the time travellers from Timeline B could then possibly travel to a duplicate of Timeline A's future (Timeline A-7, for example), but they will never be able to confront the original assassins from the original Timeline A, since, as stated above, they cannot travel into their own past, just parallel timelines. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Differential Time Flow Between Timelines The above examples describe one possible method for travelling into the future via multiple open time gates in a past timeline. However, this method will only work for time travellers who are already in a timeline that diverged from another, and only if the divergence was caused by a time gate opened from even farther into the future in the original timeline. For time travellers in the original timeline (Timeline A), or in any divergent timeline after the date of the time gate's opening in the original timeline, this method cannot be used to travel to a parallel future. Also, even in timelines where this method can be used, it would require multiple trips into past timelines in order to locate the exact period when the time gate from the future was open, and then the time travellers would have to find a way to travel to that future while avoiding a confrontation with the even-more-advanced time travellers in that future timeline. Fortunately, there is a simpler and more controllable method of creating a link to a future timeline that can work regardless of what time period or timeline one is in. This method requires the combination of sixth-dimensional time gate technology with fifth-dimensional temporal phasing technology to create differential time flows between two linked parallel timelines. The process is as follows: The time travellers must find a location where a time gate can secretly be opened for a long period and remain undetected. Once the time gate is opened into a past timeline, it must be kept open continuously, so it must be located in a secure environment. Once the time gate is opened into the past timeline, the time travellers must place a temporal accelerator next to the open time gate on the future side of the gate, while on the past side they must place a temporal stasis device, so that each may generate a phased bubble of time completely surrounding the time portal. Once the fifth-dimensional phasing devices are positioned on each side of the time gate, they must be activated simultaneously, and at precisely inverse time ratios (e.g., if the accelerator on the future side speeds up time five hundred times the normal rate, then the stasis device on the past side must slow down time to one five-hundredth the normal rate). The coordinated use of inverse temporal phasing devices on each side of the time gate allows a stable time flow to exist on each side of the sixth-dimensional interface. This is important, because temporal phasing technology can control time flows only within a finite spherical volume of space surrounding the device. (The radius of the effect is determined by the power level being generated by the device, while the degree of acceleration is determined by the frequency of the antigraviton flow from the emitter node.) If a temporal phasing device were placed on only one side of an open time gate, it would be like trying to alter the time flow for the entire Universe on the other side of the time gate, since there is no fifth-dimensional field surrounding the other side of the gateway. But with inverse time flows on each side of a time gate, the time differential across the sixth-dimensional interface is balanced out, creating a stable bubble of time around the time gate, while the outside time flows in each timeline have opposite time differential ratios. Therefore, in the immediate area around the past side of the time gate, the time flow is slowed down compared to that timeline's outside world. Stepping back through to the future side of the time gate, a time traveller would find that the time flow is the same as on the past side, but the outside world is now moving more slowly. A simple way to understand this phenomenon is to use four clocks, all set to the same time, placed at four locations: in the future timeline beside the time gate; in the future timeline outside the acceleration field surrounding the time gate; in the past timeline beside the time gate; and in the past timeline outside the stasis field surrounding the time gate. The two clocks next to the time gate will always have the same time, since the time flow is identical on each side of the gateway. The clock outside in the future timeline will run more slowly, since it is outside of the acceleration field surrounding the time gate. The clock outside in the past timeline will run more quickly, since it is outside of the stasis field surrounding that side of the time gate. Of course, the effects of temporal phasing will still be evident in time-dependent natural properties within the respective fields. On the future side, within the acceleration field, gravitational acceleration will be diminished. For example, if time is speeded up one hundred times within the field, a falling object will seem to take one hundred times longer to fall, since the force of gravity remains constant regardless of time flow. This means that two objects dropped from the same height at the same time, one inside the acceleration field and one outside, will both hit the ground at the same time, but the clock inside the field will have counted one hundred seconds as the object fell, while the clock outside the field will count only one second during the fall. The exact opposite effects apply to the temporal stasis field around the past side of the time gate. (This has the unfortunate side effect of creating a severe gravitational and inertial differential as one passes through the time gate, so time travellers may experience momentary vertigo and physical incapacitation while moving between timelines.) All of this has the effect of creating a stable link between two timelines with differing time flows. With the setup described above, the flow of time in the past timeline will move more quickly than that in the future timeline. For example, if the time differential ratio is twenty, then twenty days will pass outside in the past timeline for every day that passes in the future timeline. (This process can also work in reverse, by switching the temporal accelerator and stasis devices, to slow down the past timeline relative to the future timeline, if time travellers wanted to study a brief past period for a prolonged span of time.) So, while the time gate is originally opened into a past timeline (Timeline D, for example), the differential time flows will allow the past timeline eventually to catch up to and overtake the original future timeline (Timeline A). Therefore, if a time gate is opened from 2137 in Timeline A into 2092 in Timeline D (forty-five years in the past), with a differential time ratio of twenty, then in 2139 of Timeline A, the other side of the time gate will be linked to 2132 in Timeline D (seven years in the past), and one year later in Timeline A, that same time gate will link to 2152 in Timeline D (twelve years into the future). The longer the time gate remains open and the greater the time flow differential, the farther into the future the other side of the time gate will extend. This is as if the past timeline is a video drama, and the time travellers are putting it in fast-forward mode. And at any point the time travellers may slow down the time differential or even stop it, so that the time flows are the same on each side, in order to explore a specific time period for an extended duration rather than just watch history rushing by. While this method of travelling to a future timeline is more controllable than the multiple-linked-timelines method described above, it also has several drawbacks. The fifth-dimensional time flow regulators on both sides of the time gate must be precisely calibrated and synchronized, or else the fifth-dimensional field could collapse. The resultant gravitic shockwave could cause the time gate itself to destabilize and collapse. Also, this method requires that the time gate be kept open continuously for years or, in the past timeline, possibly for centuries. It is therefore necessary to position the time gate in a secure location, and also open it far enough into the past so that temporal divergence will prevent the same time travellers in the past timeline from constructing a time gate in the same location. (For example, if the time travellers in Timeline A construct a time gate in a New Mexico cave and open it into Timeline G five years in the past, they must try to change history so that their counterparts in Timeline G will not come to that same cave five years later, or else the open time gate will be discovered and a conflict could arise between the inhabitants of the two timelines.) Due to temporal divergence, the future of the divergent timeline that the time travellers create will not necessarily predict what will happen in their own future, but they can observe general historical trends to gain an advantage in their own timeline. The greatest benefit, however, is access to advanced technology that may be invented over many decades or centuries in the divergent future. Unfortunately, the more advanced the divergent timeline becomes, the greater the chances that the natives of that timeline might discover the less-advanced time travellers and their time gate from the original timeline. But the time travellers have a slight advantage because all divergent timelines begin in the past, so the time travellers could manipulate and secretly guide the course of history. Agents from the original timeline could come and go, working continually in the divergent timeline to keep their presence and their time gate's existence a secret. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copyright 2120 Chronos Technologies, Inc. CHRONOS HOME 9-D THEORY USING TIME GATES DESTINY, CAUSALITY NAVIGATING TIMELINES TEMPORAL PHASING TELEPORTATION E-MAIL US / F.A.Q. ABOUT US GIFT SHOP MOVIES / DVDs MESSAGE BOARD DELPHI FORUM "MAKING TOMORROW'S HISTORY TODAY" Temporal Phasing The Fifth Dimension The effects of fifth-dimensional temporal phasing were first theorized by Albert Einstein in the early Twentieth Century. At that time, the effects were known as "time dilation," and the only known way to achieve fifth-dimensional displacement was through relativistic acceleration, via either change in linear velocity or gravitational field. Einstein's "twin paradox" demonstrated how natural temporal phasing due to acceleration could cause two people to age at different rates. It was not until the early Twenty-second Century that researchers at Chronos Technologies were able to induce an artificial acceleration field within a specified volume, allowing them not only to slow down local time, but also to speed it up. The uses of fifth-dimensional technology to speed up time in a particular location and to slow it down are known respectively as temporal acceleration and temporal stasis. Both processes utilize similar fifth-dimensional phasing technology. In order to artificially phase an object out of the normal flow of time, it must be saturated by a phased antigraviton field, whose frequency and polarity determine the extent and direction of fifth-dimensional displacement, and whose saturation density determines the spherical radius of the effect from the antigraviton field generator. (See Applications of Nine-dimensional Theory for more information on fifth-dimensional displacement.) By the mid-Twenty-second Century, the technologies of microcircuitry, nanotechnology, and new power storage techniques have allowed temporal phasing technology to become very compact and portable. It may someday be incorporated into household appliances and industrial applications, pending government approval. Temporal phasing does not remove an object from the physical (four-dimensional) Universe; rather, it changes the relative time flow around the object. All outside physical forces still affect the phased object, and it can still interact with the outside world, but time-dependent properties -- such as gravitational acceleration, momentum, inertia, force, and frequency -- are distorted to the degree of relative fifth-dimensional displacement. (See below for descriptions of physical properties associated with temporal displacement.) Einstein was correct in his prediction that the velocity of light remains constant regardless of fifth-dimensional displacement. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Temporal Acceleration Shifting an object outward through the fifth dimension causes the object to experience more time in each temporal cycle. This has the practical effect of speeding up the aging process of the object. To understand the effects of such temporal acceleration, assume that a person (call him Mr. Swift) has a fifth-dimensional temporal accelerator that can be carried on the body, with an effect radius of two meters and an acceleration ratio of thirty-to-one compared with the rest of the world. That would mean that his wrist watch would record the passage of thirty minutes for every one minute recorded by a wall clock across the room. But the speed of clocks is the least noticeable of the temporal acceleration effects. As soon as Mr. Swift activates the device, he will notice a sudden shift in gravitational acceleration, as if he were on the Moon or an asteroid with light gravity. This is because, with average gravitational acceleration at Earth's surface, an object dropped from a height of ten meters will take about one second to hit the floor; but with the temporal acceleration constant of Mr. Swift's frame of reference, he will watch that same object fall for over thirty seconds. The time it takes the object to fall is the same whether it is dropped inside Mr. Swift's acceleration field or outside it. To illustrate this point, say that Mr. Swift and a person across the room both drop a metal ball from the same height at the same time. Even though Mr. Swift's ball is falling within his temporal acceleration field, it will still hit the floor at the same time as the other person's ball. This is because gravitational acceleration remains constant across all fifth-dimensional reference frames. Likewise, the speed of light remains constant regardless of time flow. Light passing through an accelerated region will reach its destination in the same amount of time, but its wavelengths will become more spread-out, making the light appear more red when it enters an accelerated region; light generated from inside a temporally accelerated region will be blue-shifted upon leaving the acceleration field. Also, only one minute worth of light energy from the outside will reach Mr. Swift for every thirty minutes he experiences, so the world will seem to be much darker, as well as red-shifted, to Mr. Swift's perception. However, light and gravity are not unique in their constancy across the fifth dimension. Inertia and momentum are also constant across fifth-dimensional reference frames. Say, for example, that Mr. Swift and his counterpart across the room both fired pellet guns at a target from the same distance. The pellet fired by Mr. Swift would have a velocity thirty times greater than the other person's when it is fired. However, when the pellet exits the temporal acceleration field, it will slow down to the same velocity as the other pellet. This is due to the conservation of momentum across the fifth dimension. Momentum of matter remains constant across time frames because, while an accelerated object's velocity may increase, its inertial mass will decrease proportionally. Therefore, the pellet will move thirty times faster, but with one-thirtieth the mass, so its total kinetic energy is equal to the other pellet's on impact. This conservation of momentum causes a moving object to become more massive, and to slow in its velocity, upon leaving the accelerated environment. Due to these unique physical properties of temporally accelerated environments, Mr. Swift will be able to run faster than other people, but may experience vertigo, since his inertial mass is thirty times less; and since objects take thirty times longer to fall, he could jump very high off the ground, or fall in slow motion from a great height, but be able to land safely on his feet -- much like running on the Moon. It is important to note, though, that temporal acceleration does not give Mr. Swift any physical advantage over others, since his inertia is lessened, so his momentum is the same as anyone else's. However, his speed, reflexes, and thought processes will be thirty times faster, giving him a strategic mental advantage over others. To illustrate: If Mr. Swift and his non-accelerated counterpart both were striking identical glass windows with identical sticks, Mr. Swift would swing his stick thirty times faster, but the stick would be thirty times less massive, so it would not strike the window any harder than the other person's. However, Mr. Swift would be able to break his window first, because he could hit it thirty times in the same time it would take the other person to swing his stick once. Due to the lessened gravity and inertial mass, it is not advised that people remain in temporal acceleration fields for long periods of time, since their muscles and bones will start to atrophy as if they were in outer space or on the Moon. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Temporal Stasis Shifting an object inward through the fifth dimension causes the object to experience less time in each temporal cycle. This has the practical effect of slowing down the aging process of the object. To understand the effects of such temporal stasis, assume that a person (call her Ms. Still) has a fifth-dimensional temporal stasis field generator with an effect radius of two meters and a temporal dilation ratio of one-to-thirty compared with the rest of the world. That would mean that while within the stasis field her wrist watch would record the passage of only one minute for every thirty minutes recorded by a wall clock across the room. The effects of temporal stasis are exactly opposite those of temporal acceleration as discussed above. Ms. Still's inertial mass will increase thirty times, making it very difficult to start or stop moving, or to change direction. Also, from her slowed perception, objects would seem to fall thirty times faster; an object that normally takes one second to fall to the ground would take only one-thirtieth of a second to fall according to her watch. Likewise, light entering the stasis field would shorten in wavelength, becoming blue-shifted, so everything on the outside will seem to have a bluish tint in Ms. Still's perception. But while she experiences only one minute of time, thirty minutes worth of light energy will have entered her stasis field from the outside, making everything on the outside seem much brighter to her. Due to the increase in her perception of gravity, Ms. Still would not be able to walk while in the stasis field; in fact, she might be crushed by the increased gravity even while lying on a bed. It is therefore necessary for people and other fragile objects within strong stasis fields to be suspended in a tank of liquid or gel, so that they are not crushed by gravity. These tanks, known a tempostats, would also shield them from the thirty times more light and radiation from the outside to which they would otherwise be exposed. Despite these harmful physical effects, in a properly constructed tempostat, with an oxygen supply, a person could survive in temporal stasis with a ratio of up to one-to-one thousand (i.e., the person in stasis would age one year for every thousand years that passed in the outside world). Solid inanimate objects can be subjected to even stronger temporal stasis fields, aging just one year for every hundred thousand or even million years that passed in the outside world. Aside from its preservative effects, temporal stasis technology has a variety of other uses. A tempostatic grenade with an effect radius of three or four meters could incapacitate an enemy on the battlefield, both by slowing him down and by increasing his relative gravity and inertial mass. See Navigating Parallel Timelines for information about using fifth-dimensional technology to create differential time flows between two timelines. Copyright 2120 Chronos Technologies, Inc. CHRONOS HOME 9-D THEORY USING TIME GATES DESTINY, CAUSALITY NAVIGATING TIMELINES TEMPORAL PHASING TELEPORTATION E-MAIL US / F.A.Q. ABOUT US GIFT SHOP MOVIES / DVDs MESSAGE BOARD DELPHI FORUM "MAKING TOMORROW'S HISTORY TODAY" Interspatial Teleportation Interspace To understand the concept of three-dimensional interspace, one needs to consider each spatial dimension on its own for example, the dimension of length. While in the classic four-dimensional model of the Universe, length and other dimensions are straight lines, in the Nine-dimensional model, one must picture the spatial dimensions as cyclic, looping back onto themselves at periodic intervals. Creating a gateway through interspace is like stepping from one spatial cycle to another, without traversing the intervening space itself. In other words, if normal space is like a spiral path, coiling outward from the center, then travelling through interspace is like walking in a straight line outwards from the center of this spiral path, crossing perpendicular to each concentric loop of the path. However, this metaphor is misleading, since the path is a single dimension (e.g., length), and by definition has no thickness. So stepping across the coils of the path through interspace is instantaneous. This means that one can never be "inside" interspace, but can only pass through it as a portal between two points in normal space-time. The act of passing through interspace is known as interspatial teleportation. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Teleportation In order to create an interspatial gateway, or teleportal, between two points in space, it is necessary to construct an antineutrino generator. Antineutrinos are three-dimensional particles that exist in one spatial dimension and two perpendicular dimensions of interspace. The orientation of these three perpendicular dimensions is determined by the arbitrary linear vector in which the polarized antineutrino stream is projected in three-dimensional space (i.e., the teleportal would connect two points in space along the same line as that in which the stream of antineutrinos is directed). Functionally, a teleportal generator works much the same way as a sixth-dimensional time gate. The antineutrino accelerator projects a polarized stream of phased particles along one spatial dimension, and the stream is focused by a gravitic lens into a perpendicular two-dimensional plane to form a disk-shaped aperture. But while a time gate aperture must be projected onto a plane of stable protonic matter, the opposite is true of an interspatial teleportal; it must be opened in a vaccuum or a fluidic environment, such as in air or liquid. A teleportal cannot be opened inside of solid matter, since the matter would destabilize the antineutrino stream, which is highly sensitive to gravitational fields. Like a time gate, the teleportal is entered from the side opposite the particle generator. This means the other end of the teleportal will be opened at a point directly behind the the apparatus, opposite the flow of the antineutrino stream. The front of the teleportal manifests as an opaque disk emitting white light and other wavelengths of electromatic radiation at low levels. While from the front it appears as a flat disk, the portal is surrounded by a very strong gravitic field, warping space-time around its circumference, and the back side seems to recede into a hemispherical singularity. This warping of space-time around the teleportal has the effect that if anyone attempts to pass through from any angle other than the front, the space warp will pull the person around through the front, and the person will exit the front at the other end. In other words, a teleportal is a two-dimensional disk, but it has no back -- every side is the front. The frequency of the antineutrino stream and power level of the generator determine the diameter of the teleportal, while the degree of the stream's refraction by the gravitic lens determines through how many spatial cycles the gateway will pass (i.e., how far away one will teleport). The farther one wishes to travel, the more powerful the gravitic lens will have to be, and the larger one wants the diameter of the teleportal, the more powerful the antineutrino projector must be. Layout of a Teleportal: The teleportal on the left is generated by the antineutrino generator / gravitic lens apparatus at center. The remote end of the teleportal appears along the same line directly behind the apparatus (right). The red arrows show the direction of travel through the teleportal. Einstein discovered that gravity and other forms of linear acceleration can cause a distortion in the curvature of four-dimensional space-time; natural acceleration fields can also cause the dimension of time to bend inward through the fifth dimension. However, the greatest effect of gravity is on interspatial cycles. To continue the above metaphor, if a linear dimension of space is imagined as a coiled path, then a nearby gravity source would cause the path to coil more tightly, so that a shorter distance is traversed in each loop. This means that teleporting through the same number of spatial cycles would cover a shorter distance near a strong gravitational field. In practice, this means that at Earth's mean surface gravity, spatial cycles are compressed to within a few meters of one another. In deep space, away from any gravitational fields, spatial cycles are spaced millions of kilometers apart. This phenomenon allows people to teleport with great precision to within a few meters of any destination on Earth's surface, or to teleport many light years in deep space, without much difference in energy expenditure (e.g., teleporting through one hundred spatial cycles on Earth would take a person to a point a few kilometers away, while one hundred spatial cycles through deep space would traverse close to a light year, both using the same amount of energy). For this reason, it is impractical to teleport great distances on Earth's surface, and especially through the planet's core, where gravitational distortion is greatest. It would take a huge amount of energy to teleport from, say, Europe to Australia, or North America to India. However, teleporting from Britain to France, or from China to Australia, would take a reasonable amount of energy, which could be produced inside a large power plant facility near the teleportation facility. Similarly, it is impractical to teleport directly from one planet to another. To teleport between Earth and the Moon, or to Mars, would require a prohibitive amount of energy, since spatial cycles would be tightly compressed close to each planet's surface. It is therefore necessary to construct teleportal facilities in outer space in Solar orbit, far from any planetary bodies, in order to teleport an interplanetary shuttle millions of kilometers through the Solar system, using a resonable amount of power. Likewise, to teleport a starship from the Solar system to a distant star system, the teleport facility must be located far from the Sun, so that the Sun's gravitational field is not compressing the spatial cycles too close together. Consequently, travel across Earth would still take several jumps between teleport facilities, but since the jumps would be instantaneous, one could travel between any two continents in a matter of minutes, far faster than conventional aircraft or orbital shuttle, but requiring far more energy. For astronauts to travel from Earth to a distant star system in the shortest amount of time, they would first have to teleport from Earth to a spacedock facility in geosynchronous orbit, and from there travel through normal space to another interspatial facility that would teleport them to the edge of the Solar System, beyond Neptune's orbit. From there, a third teleportal generator would be able to teleport the starship through the widely spaced interspatial cycles of interstellar space to within a few billion kilometers of the distant star system. Even with interspatial teleportation technology at their disposal, the astronauts would still have to travel for weeks, or even years, through normal space, where gravitational fields would make long-range teleportation energy-prohibitive. That is why long-range starships should be equipped with tempostatic chambers, to keep the astronauts in temporal stasis during their long journeys through normal space. Also, since the teleportal generator must be on the opposite side of the teleportal from where the starship enters it, the teleportation apparatus cannot be housed within the ship itself. However, the ship can carry its own teleport apparatus, which could then be constructed and activated at its remote location, in case the first one near the Solar system were to fail. The starship could also contain smaller-scale, integrated interspatial technology, such as for teleporting people or equipment from the orbiting starship down to a planet's surface, or for sending brief radio burst transmissions through a microscopic teleportal, which could be opened for a few microseconds over a great distance with a reasonable energy expenditure, thus allowing for faster-than-light communication through interspace. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copyright 2120 Chronos Technologies, Inc.